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We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,. There are a number of ways to improve the disc brake on a Commando. The family moved to South Africa in early as part of a government-backed colonization scheme whose participants came to be known as the Settlers. Undo the tab washer and the clutch nut spark plug spanner fits. Graduation season has arrived - and with it, Newsday's annual recognition of a collection of seniors who have made a mark during their high school years. Revs and Speed Calculator posted 25 Dec ,

Www.Norton.com/Setup | Norton Setup Guide at Norton.com/Setup

Emperor Norton

John, and in the second, she is sett downe to be his daughter, as truth is: Now for proof that the Nortons of Sharpenhoe are descended from the aforesaid Sr. Norton, is to be known that Sr. Robert Norton the elder, sonn of the siad Mr. Thomas Norton the younger. He married into the house of Valois. Valois coat of arms 2. Barr coat of arms Barre family is found in Bedfordshire by Sharpenhoe Dalbemonte coat of arms. Nevill coat of arms Nevill became Earl of Northumberland The Nevil famly arrives in Durham with the 2nd set of Norman nobles in along with Nourvile.

Almost certainly Norvuile is a contemporary and places the family in Durham at this date. Hadscoke coat of arms. Bassingbourne, and had Elizabeth, who m. Roger Hill of co. Bassingbourne coat of arms The principle estate of Bassingbourne is found in about 5 miles from Sharpenhoe in Cambridgeshire.

Sir John Norton ? He is summoned to Parliment in and dies in suggesting that the dates for the 8th signeour de Norvile are just about right. He had 4 daughters: Julianne, Elizabeth, Joan, and Mary. Sir John Norton is not specifically listed as a husbant to and of these, but could have been a 2nd husband. Danie, and had issue, I. Richard, of whom hereafter. William No issue reported. Now we return to the other sone of John 10 and Jane Cowper.

Hawes, and widow of Mr. Phebe, IX Richard b. Here's a short summary of the Norvile's as they turn into Nortons. This list of commanders all got huge grants of land in England. That Norvile is not listed suggests that he was not a commander, but is presented variously as King William's constable or sheriff. This is often interpreted as "Tax Collector".

Two events changed the fortunes of Le Signor. The first of these was the 1st Norman visit to Durham and York.

His men had distributed themselves throughout the narrow streets of the city and were confident they could take control of the place despite strong warnings from the Bishop of Durham called AEGELWINE, who predicted their defeat. This caused the local people to fall to their knees;.

All but one of the Norman occupants lost their lives in the massacre. King William was extremely angered by the event and sent north a second, even greater army to burn and plunder the land between York and Durham. It demonstrated the might of the Norman army to the people of northern England and forced them to recognise Norman control.

Norvile or some of his sons certainly went to Durham and York during this time because they aquired huge estates in this area.

These estates were later inherited by the Conyers family when Roger Conyers married Margaret Norton, the last Norton to inherit in York and Northumbria land. That Norvile was selected to conquer the Northumbrians is a measure of his capablities. A picture of Norvile begins to emerge. First he is a constable or sheriff, a position requiring what might euphemistically be called assertiveness.

Then being sent to the border regions where the previous Norman Earl was burned alive suggests that Norvile was able to handle hostile situations. As a result of the Norman "occupation", Durham was so devastated by the Norman armies that it was simply listed as "wasted" in the Doomsday book census of Do you love the ads that pepper your TV shows, online content, walks through your neighborhood, and almost everything else? But sometimes ads are clever, interesting, and engaging, right?

How can you filter out the annoying ones and keep the entertaining ones? Continue reading "Better blocking: Posted by Michal Brody at Parents all over the world want good lives for their children. Is it only about economic prosperity? And is prosperity only measured across generations? Washington Post economics columnist Robert J. Samuelson observes what may be a new trend in this August column. Continue reading "At the top, heading down: Dreyfuss explains her ideas in this July essay.

Dreyfuss, "In defense of the vegan hot dog". Continue reading "A place at the grill: Experts, authorities, and ordinary people in all walks of life have observed and complained that our gadgets have taken over our lives and attention spans. Others say quitting cold turkey is the only remedy. Arielle Pardes, senior associate editor at Wired, proposes a different approach in her July essay in the magazine.

So there is a possibility that there could be four different spoke types for a particular wheel. Sometimes three different types, but mostly at least two different types. Be aware of this and make sure you have all the right spokes for the right wheel.

Make sure you are familiar with which spokes go where at the time of lacing the wheel. Don't take it for granted that the spokes you have are the correct spokes. Check your spokes against maker's specs if you can. Check your new spokes against the old ones if you are rebuilding a wheel with new spokes. Lay all the spokes out and put them into like groups.

In a 40 hole rim there will always be look-alike groups of ten or multiples of ten. For example the Commando front disc wheel has ten outer left spokes, ten inner left spokes and twenty right hand spokes. Each group should be similar. You won't have 9 in one group and 11 in another, look again. Spokes are usually cad plated steel. Stainless steel is a popular shiny material favoured by many for looks.

Some people like to chrome spokes. Chroming can make the spoke material brittle. This is not such a good idea as spokes will 'work' in use and anything that works can suffer fatigue resulting in spoke breakage. Brittle spokes will not be as resistant to fatigue as standard spokes. The spoke nipple usually has a square on the shank to enable adjustment with a spoke wrench and a slot in the head for a screwdriver for faster running up or down.

Sometimes the nipples have a dished washer under them. The threads on spokes are not normally cut with a die, but rolled into the spoke. This is a more reliable method of thread creation on an item that is liable to suffer from fatigue. Rolling the threads into the material doesn't cut across the grain structures, but rolls the threads into the grain structure and is a stronger method of thread manufacture, it has less chance of developing a fatigue concentration point along the thread.

The minor diameter of the thread on the spoke shank is the thinnest part of the spoke and the weakest link in the chain. Spokes will break at this point. Spokes will also break on the bend at the spoke head where the spoke goes through the hub flange. Some hub flanges have countersunk holes. This is not for the spoke head to sit in, like a counter sunk screw, but for the bend at the spoke head to sit in.

If the bend sits against a square unchamfered edge of a drilled hole, the sharp square edge will work against the spoke and create a nick or fatigue point, which is usually where the spoke will break.

However, many wheels have only countersunk holes on the outside of the flanges. This is probably because the outside spokes have the sharpest bends in them, the spoke bend sitting hard in against the relief given by the hub flange hole countersinkings. The inner spokes, because of their direction inward toward the rim, start to leave the side of the hub flange hole as soon as the spoke exits the hole.

Spokes can be the same thickness along their full length or they can be waisted toward the head end. Spokes are described in the following way as is in the factory Norton Commando manual. This gives the length of the spoke, the gauge at the narrow end and the gauge at the waisted end, spoke head angle and spoke head length. Tensioning a spoke is usually done by feel or by ear. Typically a wheel is tuned like a piano, meaning the spokes are struck gently with another metal object like the spoke wrench, listening for the pitch or note given by the spoke.

The spoke should have a nice "ding" sound, not a dull "thud" or sharp "ping". A spoke that touches another spoke will not ring clearly, by bearing a light weight on the other spoke you can get it out of the way in order to listen to the "ping".

There are torque figures and spoke torque wrenches, but these are not often used. It is easy to get false readings on the torque wrench unless all the spoke nipples are in excellent order. The slightest sticking of a nipple could give a false reading. The best, quickest and most accurate method is the tuning method. The threaded end of the spoke gets all the weather, goes through all the puddles and needs lots of looking after.

Be careful tensioning spokes on a brake drum. Over tensioning can pull the drum out of round. Check the drum for trueness after you have finished building the wheel.

Only cut out the old spokes if the nipples are frozen solid. Pulling the spokes out will give the first timer a chance to get familiar with the spoke pattern. Also gives some time to look over everything and put some thought into the job.

If the spokes are in reasonable condition, they can be used again. If replacing the spokes with new ones, the old ones can always be kept as spares.

If you know they are the right spokes as per maker's specs, then they should be kept as samples. The new ones you get may not be right! Don't destroy things unless you have too. Mixing spokes of different gauge can give problems in tensioning and load sharing. Thicker spokes will share the load easier than thinner ones. Loose or broken spokes may result in this practice. There are several different methods or patterns of spoking that can be used on spoked wheels. Most motorcycle wheels use the Cross or Tangential pattern of spoking, where pairs of spokes form a series of crosses around each side of the wheel.

In this pattern the spokes come on a tangent from the hub to the rim. It is also better able to transmit the impact forces of the wheel striking bumps in the road, back to the suspension.

The loads are carried through a larger number of spokes than the other patterns. Wheels with the Cross or Tangential spoke pattern will always have an even number of spokes. For example, most British wheels use 40 spokes. They use the Tangential pattern of spoking. Japanese maker's also use the Tangential pattern, but mostly choose to use 36 spokes. Once again, an even number. Crows Foot pattern uses a combination of Tangential spoking and Radial spoking. The cross pattern is used, but there is one radial spoke going straight from hub to rim, right through the middle of the cross.

This pattern uses groups of three spokes and so will have an odd number of holes around rim and hub. If you find a rim at a swap meet with an odd number of holes, this is most likely why.

So check the number of holes in your rim. Dimples are pressed around the valley of the rim equal distances apart, but every second hole will be off centre to one side, the other holes will be off centre to the other side of the rim.

To drill the holes in the dimples for the spokes the correct angle must be used. It is very important that this angle is calculated and drilled correctly because it will determine if the nipple will sit true and straight and be absolutely in line with it's corresponding hole in the hub flange when all is together and tightened up. These holes will not necessarily have the same angles for left and right side of the wheel as the hub may not be central inside the rim, or the hub may have different diameter flanges as is the case with Triumph conical hubs and most early hubs that did not have a full width brake drum.

So it's very important to have a rim with the spoke holes drilled at the correct angle and it is very important to know which way around the rim goes in relation to the hub so the right spoke angles match up with the corresponding hub flange diameter.

Place the hub on a bench top in front of you or hold the hub in one hand flanges horizontal. Remembering that you could have four different sets of spokes, decide which spokes are for INSIDE the top flange as the hub appears in front of you.

Holding the correct spokes in the other hand, start sticking a spoke down every other hole around the top flange. These spokes will be inside spokes. Now is when you check which holes lead and which holes follow. Still with the hub in front of you the same as when you started. Do not turn it over. Look straight down over the hub. Look straight vertically past a spoke hole on the top flange that you have just put a spoke into.

Looking down onto the bottom flange, you will notice the holes in the bottom flange are not directly under the holes in the top flange. They are midway between them. Now remember back to when you looked at the holes in the rim each side of the valve.

If your rim had the looking up spoke hole to the left of the valve hole in the rim, go to the next hole in the bottom hub flange immediately counter clockwise back from a hole in the top flange that you have just put a spoke into and with the correct spokes for OUTSIDE the bottom flange, start here and stick a spoke through every other hole around the bottom flange.

OR if your rim had the looking up spoke hole to the right of the valve hole in the rim, go to the next hole in the bottom hub flange immediately clockwise back from a hole in the top flange that you have just put a spoke into and with the correct spokes for OUTSIDE the bottom flange, start here and stick a spoke through every other hole around the bottom flange.

This bit can be quite tricky if you have hub flanges of very different diameters. You may have to go over it a couple of times to make sure you have the spokes in the correct holes.

Now you should still have the hub in front of you with flanges still horizontal and twenty or so spokes hanging straight down. Still with the hub in front of you the same as when you started, sweep all the spokes back around both flanges so they are in two bundles top and bottom Hold them so they don't fall out and turn the hub over.

Repeat step one with the rest of the spokes, making sure you have the correct spokes in the correct flanges. Go around the top flange first, sticking the INSIDE spokes down through the flange from the outside, then around the bottom flange, sticking the OUTSIDE spokes down through the bottom flange from the inside, ending up in the correct direction inner or outer phew! Now you should have a hub with 40 or so spokes in it. Looking down onto the hub you should have every other hole alternating between a spoke head and a spoke shaft on each side of both hub flanges.

With the hub laying on a bench top and all spokes extended outwards radially, sweep all the spokes around so they are bundled together in one spot. Place the wheel rim over the hub, roughly in it's position valve hole to the top or furthest away from you. If your reusing your old rim, lay the rim over the hub keeping the same direction of rotation as it was before you pulled the wheel apart.

Look up your notes, drawings and photos if you have to. If it's a new wheel build, make sure the rim is around the right way for the spoke angles in the rim holes matching up to whatever hub you have. Offset or unequal hub flange diameters. You can establish this by checking spoke angles as per the rim orientation paragraph above.

Take any head up spoke from the top flange spoke head up means the spoke head is facing upwards, with the spoke inside the flange and put it in the first looking up hole adjacent to the valve hole.

Remember, you established this earlier on, so you should be right now!! Use anti seize on the threads. Thread a nipple only four turns on each spoke as you lace it into the rim. Count off five spoke holes to the right, including the hole you spoked in step three. This must also be a looking up hole. Into this put the next head up spoke to the right of the one you spoked in step three. Continue this sequence until you have laced up all the head-up inside spokes in the top hub flange.

The wheel will now have ten spokes in holes with three spoke holes between each spoke. The centre of the three empty holes will be a looking up hole, the other two, looking down holes.

This is a critical step, so take it slowly and repeat it if you don't get it at first. Take the partially spoked rim and hub, and, keeping the same side up, rotate the rim so the spokes are at an acute angle.

Because of the spoke angles drilled in the rim, it will be immediately obvious if you go in the wrong direction. Depending on how the rim has been drilled angle of the holes in the rim rotate the rim left or right. Hold the hub as you rotate the rim. Take any head down outside spoke from the top hub flange The wheel should not have been turned over!!! Thread a nipple on it four turns. This spoke should have gone into the middle remaining hole. Continue lacing all the head down outside spokes in the top flange.

When you are finished there will be twenty spokes in groups of twos. This is a most critical step. Turn the wheel over. Now, all the unlaced spokes will be in the top flange. Straighten spokes out and sweep them all out of the way.

Things should look like they will now fall into place as these remaining spokes will only go into their rightful holes. Start with the head up inside spokes spokes on the now top hub flange. They will only go into one set of holes. Stick them in their holes and thread their nipples on four turns. Next do all the head down spokes crossing them over the outside of the spokes you have already laced and thread their nipples on four turns.

While motorcycle spokes cross other spokes one, two or three times, they shouldn't weave in and out of one another like on bicycles.

Bicycles spokes are much longer and thinner. Put your wheel into your jig. Your jig can be a pretty flash purpose made professional expensive things or can be a simple homemade stand. Something like an old swing arm clamped vertically in a vice will do.

You don't need to use the wheel's own axle if it doesn't fit the jig. Any round bar that fits will do. The wheel rotates on the bearings, not the axle. It is handy to have some spacers each side of the wheel to stop it moving side to side while tightening or loosening spokes.

Nuts and washers will do. You will need some form of pointer to check radial and axial runout. A black felt tipped pen is a good idea as well. Use a dial gauge only to check your final alignment.

Get a comfy stool like a bar stool and sit it in front of the jig, have a cuppa handy and start work. Using a screwdriver and starting at the valve hole go around the wheel and screw all the nipples down so the last spoke thread just disappears under the nipple and stop. Adjust radial runout first. Side to side wobble comes last. Once the wheel is more or less within 6mm or so radial runout, start on sideways runout.

Get this down to about 6mm as well. Don't tighten the spokes! Now we must look at rim off set. You'll find that if the spokes are original parts, or they have been correctly made by aftermarket people, the rim should have come somewhere near it's correct position. Go back to your notes or manufacturers specifications and see what the rim offset should be.

Using the same method of measuring as you did before you stripped the wheel measure the offset of the rim as it is now and make a decision on which way it should go to be correct. Now tighten up whichever side spokes need tightening to move the rim in the desired direction. Don't do any spokes up too tight. Move your rim into position with the spokes not very much more than finger tight. Once the rim is in it's correct position, get out the felt pen and true the rim again.

Holding the pen firmly against your jig, rotate the wheel and move the pen tip toward the rim. As the rim rotates the runout will contact the tip leaving a long black mark around the rim. This gives a clear indication of which way and where the rim needs to be adjusted. Adjust the spokes, wipe off the black mark and do it again. Check offset, check radial runout, then check axil runout. Do this enough times until you are happy with your work, then gradually go around tightening the spokes.

They don't need to be death tight. There are lots of them and they all need to share the work equally. As you rotate the wheel strike the spokes lightly with you spanner. They should start to give a nice crisp 'ding' not a dull 'thud' or an over tightened 'ping'. Get a soft-faced mallet and go around the wheel and give every spoke a light wack.

This will settle the spokes, one might have been tightened up with a slight bow in it. A gentle knock with the hammer will spring it into line and it will now probably have a dull thud to it when struck with your tuning spanner. By now the wheel should be pretty close to being right. Keep checking offset, checking radial runout, and checking axil runout. Time for a cuppa or a beer. Come back later after the nerves have settled, run around it with the tuning spanner, ding, ding, dong, ding and give it that final touch………..

Should be pretty right after all that. If your keen enough, you can now check your work with a dial gauge. Most motorcycle manuals specify a maximum runout figure of 2mm or. You should easily get a new rim well under 1mm or. An old re-laced rim would still come somewhere near 1 mm or.

Put the rim band on, fit your tyre and make sure the bead sits down properly and you have correct air pressure. Put the fully assembled wheel back up in your jig and give it a slow spin and see how it goes for balance. Static balancing a wheel is another easy job that makes a lot of difference to the performance of the bike.

You can buy proper wheel weights that either stick onto the rim or clamp around the spoke. You can cut strips of lead and wrap them around the spokes or cut strips of lead and stick them to the rim with silicon.

Spin the wheel slowly and wait for it to come to rest. Mark the top of the tyre with chalk. Spin the wheel slowly again and see if it stops in the same place. Add some lead weight to the top of the wheel by wrapping it around a spoke or by taping it to the rim. Spin the wheel again.

Repeat this and add or subtract weights until the wheel takes a long time to stop turning and will stop in any position. Fix the lead weights properly to the rim. If you wrap strips of lead around the spokes, wrap electricians tape or similar around the windings. Stick the strips to the rims with silicon and tape over the weights until the silicon has set.

Fit wheel to bike. Download a revs calculator speadsheet. Enter your own values. Commando Forks are known to be inadequate by modern standards. There are many modifications ranging from using different grades or amounts of oil to buying reworked Showa internals from Kenny Dreer. The following is a telling of what has come to be known as the Covenant Conversion. Most of the British Motorcycle manufacturers of the classic era deserved their reputations for producing well designed and solidly-built machines.

Yet even the proudest names occasionally produced designs which became famous for their faults rather than their finer points. Triumph fans prefer not to talk about the sprung hub and Norton devotees change the subject when you mention Commando Combat engines.

Royal Enfield buffs admit that the Crusader five-speed gearbox was "Made like a gun" only in that it regularly exploded with a bang. BSA, Velocette and others all made the occasional blunder. As the saying goes: There is often the real chance of actually improving in old design with today's materials and technology. If such modifications are done sensitively, only the most fussy of concours types can object. For those of us who actually ride our machines regularly, modern paints, electrics, tyres and so on are welcome developments.

This article describes a couple of simple modifications to the later of the two Norton Roadholder fork designs. These mods improve the forks' damping characteristics, without affecting the appearance of the machine. The original Roadholder design, itself a development of a pre-war non hydraulic version, was launched In September for the following season. It used a double-taper damper rod which passed through a restrictor inside the bottom fork bush.

The design worked well enough at the extremes of travel as the taper took effect, but the damping provided around mid-travel was limited to moving oil in or out of the space between the upper and lower fork bushes. This was the so-called Long Roadholder.

The later Short Roadholder fork was fitted to Featherbed-framed models from onwards. It was to continue largely unchanged until Norton ceased manufacturing in the mid-Seventies. For normal road use, this later design was a distinct improvement and closely followed the pattern of the Matchless Teledraulic fork.

The fork now used a separate internal damper tube and shuttle valve arrangement which gave more precise control over the middle portion of fork travel. It is easily distinguished from the earlier design by the lack of an external spring and the presence of a damper rod screwed to the underside of the fork top nut.

Unfortunately, it was at this stage that two design flaws, not present in the original Matchless fork, crept in. As the faults only affect damping near the extremes of fork travel, it is perhaps understandable that no mention of any deterioration was made in the road test reports of the day. Doubtless, if riders of the brand new Featherbed machine, introduced in , had gone for a quick blast round the local slag heap, some of them would have noticed that all was not well with their forks.

More specifically" the new design lacked proper hydraulic bump stops to cushion the final metal-to-metal contact at the two extremes of front suspension movement. The other Roadholder features which made it such a good example of its type in the Fifties, were still there: The bumpstops, however, had effectively disappeared. Most, if not all, motorcycle forks with hydraulic damping incorporate some arrangement for minimizing noise and uncomfortable metal-to-metal clashing at the extremes of travel.

Car designers, with their concealed suspension systems, usually resort to crude but effective rubber bump stops. These are normally tapered, to give a progressively firm control as the suspension nears the limit of its movement. As an aside, many enterprising riders in the heyday of the cafe racer seemed to use this system on their front suspension or a fibreglass-in compression variant , judging by the number of badly-fitted and tyre-marked fairings around in those days!

The more conventional methods used by telescopic fork makers almost always involve either a tapered, moving restrictor arrangement or a progressively blanked-off hole system. By such methods the damping over the last inch or so of travel is rapidly increased, in order to avoid metallic contact between sprung and unsprung components.

Those of us reared on old British field bikes will remember the sickening crash of slider on stanchion, audible at a hundred yards, as we launched our tired steeds off yet another death-defying molehill. In our youthful exuberance, we took these jolts as a matter of course and marveled all the more at Messrs Smith, Eastwood, Bickers et al. Little did we know that two-bob's worth of oil and new oil seals would have made the old banger float like a butterfly!

Getting back to Roadholders, the Norton designers tried to include both of the above methods, viz a blanked-off pair of holes one large then one small, in sequence at full extension, and a tapered restrictor on full compression. Sadly, unlike the Matchless version, neither arrangement works properly. A quick glance at the illustration shows that as the slider moves down the stanchion, the oil trapped in the space between the top and bottom bushes is squeezed out through the large upper holes and the smaller lower holes.

This provides some damping to supplement the effect of the separate damper assembly. In theory, as the slider nears the end of its travel, first the large holes and then the small holes are blanked off as they disappear inside the top fork bush.

This leaves a small cushion of oil trapped between the two bushes to stop them hitting each other and putting excess strain on the materials and your eardrums. As far as it goes, this design is perfectly sound.

Unfortunately, it literally doesn't go far enough. Unlike the Matchless, Triumph and countless, other designs, the large and small oil passages are not actually blanked off at all; this is because the slider never moves far enough down the stanchion for the top bush to cover them. What happens is that the delicate damper valve assembly strikes the underside of the damper tube top at a point where the stanchion oil-holes are still about an inch below the top bush.

In practice, therefore, instead of a nice oil cushion providing a proper bump stop, the damper valve has the job of limiting fork extension when it suddenly hits solid metal - a job it should never really be expected to do.

If those of you with Roadholders don't believe me, remove the fork top nut from one side of your forks, having first taken off your front wheel and mudguard and fully extend the fork leg. You will notice that the damper rod disappears an inch or so below the end of the stanchion. In other words, when the top nut is in place, it and the attached damper rod stop the forks from extending as far as they otherwise would. For those doubting Thomases who are still unconvinced, have a look at the underside of the damper tube top and you'll see the tell-tale marks in the alloy where it has been struck by the damper valve.

You may have noticed during the earlier procedure that the last bit of fork extension happened only slowly, no matter how hard you tried pulling the slider down assuming you have some oil in the fork leg. This was because the hydraulic 'lock" - ie the bump stop - was working for a change, since the damper tube no longer limits fork travel when you take the top nut off.

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Google’s Chrome web browser is used by over 50% of users on the web. When you visit a website that is using SSL, otherwise known as HTTPS or TLS, you see a green message in your browser location bar that says “Secure”. “Secure” in Chrome browser does not mean “Safe”. In this post I will explain [ ]. Quick Help - if the grid does not display the channels you expect, use the CHANGE PROVIDER link - some providers do not offer WKAR World and WKAR Create. How to Temporarily Disable Norton Antivirus. Norton Antivirus is a great program that works to keep your computer protected from viruses, and malware such as worms, spyware, and Trojan horses from entering your device.